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Archaeological Survey

  • Greece
  • Crete
  • Lasithi
  • Agios Nikolaos


  • This project consists of an intensive survey intended to reveal information about the settlement history of the target region.

Project Dates

  • 1986 -


  • No period data has been added yet
  • 2000 BC
  • 1200 BC
  • 1100 BC
  • 700 BC
  • 100 BC
  • 1 AD
  • 1200 AD

Survey Method

  • [ed]
  • [view]

Other Comments

  • Landforms; Socia/political factors
  • 1. What was the topographical setting of ancient coastal settlements such as Priniatikos Pyrgos; specifically, how deep was the beach in prehistoric and historical periods? 2. To what extent has coastal subsidence obscured the limits or size of Priniatikos Pyrgos and other coastal settlements? 3. How large is the preserved portion of Priniatikos Pyrgos? How much of the settlement extends off the boundaries of the headland, to the south, east, and west? 4. How damaged is this site from later construction, agriculture, excavation? Where is the best stratigraphical evidence likely to be preserved? 5. How has deposition from the Istron River and coastal subsidence interacted to form the present coastline around this and other sites? 6. Was it possible that the estuary of the Istron River was the primary natural harbor of this coastal area in the Bronze Age? If so, when was this harbor silted-in? 7. What natural harbors were available to the Bronze Age through medieval to modern coastal sites? 8. Is there any evidence for man-made modifications or enhancements of possible harbors? 9. Did coastal topographical differences relating to depth of coastal waters or the qualify of harbors influence or dictate the placement of prehistoric or historic settlements? 10. Why was Priniatikos Pyrgos established in the flood plain of the Istron River? 11. At the inception of occupation in the early third millennium, was Priniatikos Pyrgos actually an island, separated from the mainland by a marshy area and the river? 12. Did the course of the Istron River change during either the prehistoric or historical periods, and how did the colluvial debris flows in the river affect the topography of the coast, its settlements, and the contiguous inland Kalo Chorio Valley? 13. Can evidence be derived from debris flows or strata along the river and in the valley for episodic climate changes? 14. If so, when did these climate changes occur? What can be determined concerning their impact, if any, on settlement and the coastline? 15. How much deposition has occurred within the Istron Valley since the first cultural periods? 16. At what depth are the Bronze Age strata in the Istron Valley, and has deep extensive deposition obscured a sizeable Minoan community on the valley floor? 17. When were the changes in sea level and coastal subsidence initiated? Is coastal subsidence continuing, and if so, at what rate? "The goals of this multidisciplinary project were to place Vrokastro and other regional sites in an historical and environmental context, and to compare the results of this study to data collected from other regional surveys in Crete and the Aegean."--Hayden (Project Website)

Research Institution

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  • [view]


  • Director