• Nora, Area E, Terme Centrali
  • Nora
  • Nora
  • Italy
  • Sardinia
  • Province of Cagliari
  • Pula


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  • No period data has been added yet


  • 200 BC - 700 AD


    • Milan University began research at Nora in autumn 2002 continuing the project begun by Venice University, directed by Prof. Giorgio Bejor. The area in question is situated at the heart of the Roman city: the central _insula_ of the peninsula, between the theatre and the so-called Temple of Eshmun, partially occupied by the grand Central Baths and numerous houses with standing remains, excavated and consolidated by the Superintendent Gennaro Pesce at the end of the 1950s. The first campaign concentrated on the planning of the visible walls and reconstruction of the occupation phases dating to between the 5th and 7th century A.D. The presence of at least three houses, A1, A2 and B, datable to the post-Constantinian period was documented, attesting the continuation of residential occupation in this area that must have characterised this zone until the final decades of the city’s life. In 2003-2005, the excavations concentrated on the archaeological evidence dating to the immediately preceding phase, clearly obliterated by the 5th-7th century houses. The excavation and observation of the relationships between the structures revealed the existence of at least three residential complexes with mosaic floors, stylistically datable to between the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. These comprised a large _domus_ situated in the north-eastern part of the quarter, a house built around a peristyle with eight columns in the central part of the _insula_ and a large monumental atrium, wrongly interpreted as a nymphaeum during excavations in the 1950s. From 2006 onwards, the research followed two lines of investigation looking at the central residential structures and beginning the examination of the peripheral areas, which had not been excavated since the 1950s. The latter included the coastal strip overlooking the south bay (occupied by numerous houses known as “case a mare”), which was documented and analysed in order to gain a better understanding of the city’s road network, and to make visiting the site easier. The four campaigns undertaken in the years 2007-2010, aimed to clarify the occupation phases of the monumental Central Baths in order to define its architectural development and above all to reconstruct the dynamics of its transformation over the centuries. The stratigraphy showed at least two occupation phases distinguished by paved and plastered rooms, pre-dating the Bath’s construction, and belonging to the mid 2nd century A.D. houses. Thus, the recent excavations have documented the complex stratigraphy of this area from the early imperial period until the 7th century A.D., showing the continuity of the city’s occupation from the Phoenician period until the threshold of the medieval period.
    • Nell’anno 2013 l’attività di ricerca dell’Università degli Studi di Milano a Nora ha avuto come triplice obiettivo il proseguimento dello scavo del quartiere delle Terme Centrali, la continuazione del rilievo planimetrico della fascia costiera delle cd. “Case a Mare”, e l’inaugurazione dell’indagine della cd. “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti”. Nel quartiere centrale si è portato avanti lo scavo del grande isolato abitativo di prima età imperiale abbandonato prima della costruzione delle Terme Centrali. Nel dettaglio, si sono individuati i muri perimetrali della grande casa a corte centrale edificata con ogni probabilità tra la tarda età repubblicana e la prima età imperiale (già parzialmente portata alla luce nel 2011 e 2012): le strutture della casa, abbandonate tra II e III secolo d.C., si estendono per circa 200 mq nell’area oggi occupata dalle terme, coperte da potenti livellamenti artificiali funzionali alla costruzione dell’ _apodyterium_ termale e della porzione orientale del complesso. Si sono riconosciute alcune fasi di risistemazione edilizia interne alla casa, tra cui l’istallazione di alcune strutture per l’approvvigionamento idrico nel cortile, e si è portato alla luce parte di un tracciato stradale con orientamento NE-SW che doveva costeggiare il limite orientale dell’isolato abitato. Nella fascia delle Case a Mare, estesa dal teatro alla punta di Su Coloru e occupata da sei abitazioni denominate A, B, C, D, E ed F, si è ultimato il rilievo planimetrico dei muri dell’abitazione A (inaugurato nel 2012) e si sono ricostruite le fasi più tarde di occupazione dell’area. L’approfondimento delle indagini negli ambienti privi di pavimenti ha permesso di riconoscere la presenza di strutture murarie più antiche, rivelando la presenza di fasi occupazionali dell’area precedenti a quelle finora riconosciute. Nella “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti”, gemella della celebre “Casa dell’Atrio Tetrastilo”, il rilievo planimetrico delle strutture murarie conservate in alzato ha già permesso di distinguere la presenza di almeno tre fasi abitative diverse. I sondaggi all’interno di alcuni ambienti pertinenti all’ultima fase di vita hanno portato alla luce pavimenti più antichi di quelli attualmente visibili, rivelando la presenza di risistemazioni edilizie dell’area.
    • During this season’s campaign, the team from Milan University directed by Prof. Giorgio Bejor continued work in area E, the large sector between the theatre and Su Coloru headland, now in its 25th year of excavations. The area is formed by three distinct sectors, extending from the east to west coasts of the Nuoro peninsula: the _insula_ surrounding the Central Baths, the quarter situated along the coastal strip facing onto the south bay, and the large _domus_ next to the House of the Tetrastyle Atrium, known as the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti”. While the fieldwork took place, the washing, cataloguing and preliminary study of the finds continued. In the central _insula_ of the peninsula work concentrated on room Ta, the so-called _apodyterium_ of the Central Baths, investigated during the restoration of the mosaic floor that still occupies most of the room. The excavations provided important results regarding the reconstruction of the building phases of the bath complex, showing that this room post-dated the original construction of the complex. A preliminary study of the finds from the foundation fills suggests the walls were built no earlier than the end of the 2nd- early 3rd century A.D., confirming the dating provided by the style of the mosaic floor. The identification of the foundation trench of the adjacent _frigidarium_ (room Tb) at an earlier stratigraphic level, places the construction of this room in an earlier phase, perhaps almost a century before. Along the coastal strip, extending from the theatre to the Su Coloru headland, attention focused on two objectives: completing the planning of the walls in sector A, and deepening the excavations in some areas where the stratigraphy was intact on order to investigate the earlier construction phases. A trench opened in the eastern part of trench Aa revealed several walls razed by the floor and walls that are visible today. These structures belong to a phase preceding that known to date, which a preliminary study of the pottery finds from the fill dates to the early 2nd century A.D. In 2013, the planning of the standing walls in the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” had already shown the presence of at least three different occupation phases. Trenches dug this season inside rooms D and U, situated in the north-west corner of the house, exposed new floor levels belonging to the earliest occupation phase of the _domus_, which seems to have maintained the same alignment for the main walls. The finds from the abandonment fill of the earliest phase, including figured wall plaster and stucco, date to the first half of the 3rd century A.D.
    • During this campaign, the team from the University of Milan, led by Prof. G. Bejor, continued the excavation of Area E, the ample sector between the theatre and the Su Coloru point, in the heart of the Nora peninsula. Research took place in three areas: the central baths, the quarter situated along the coastal strip facing onto the south bay, and the great _domus_ next to the House of the Tetrastyle Atrium, denominated “House of the Director Tronchetti”. As in other years, the finds study proceeded alongside the fieldwork. In the central _insula_, object of excavations since 2002, work concentrated on rooms Td and Ti of the central baths, using very different methods and objectives. In room Td, work was completed on the open area excavation begun in 2011 and extended to rooms At, An, Am, Ama, Cf, Te, Tj, Td, with the aim of exposing the perimeter of the high imperial large _domus_ obliterated by the construction of the baths. The south-western corner of the house was identified and the entrance facing onto a small piazza south of the baths was exposed. In room Ti, a _sondage_ was dug in order to analyze the stratigraphy under the late floors of the baths, and try to find the first entrance to the complex, always situated in the area but not yet found. At least three building phases were identified for the baths, which will continue to be investigated during coming seasons. In the strip extending between the theatre and Su Coloru point, the excavation in sector A underlined the multi-stratification of this residential quarter, founded in the Punic period and occupied until the late imperial period. In room Aa, continuation of the work begun in 2013 reached the floor levels of the earliest occupation period, covered by at least one metre of earth, and provided a post early 2nd century A.D. chronology for the later standing structures. In the “House of the Director Tronchetti”, the excavation of the central atrium, room A, resulted in the definition of the three main occupation phases of the _domus_. The earliest phase was characterised by _opus_ _signinum_ floors, later obliterated by the construction of the large tetrastyle atrium with an _impluvium_, the final phase being the large house with central courtyard and terraced rooms facing the sea. Continuation of excavations in sector D revealed the entire plastered phase one room and identified the original entrance on the seaward side and not towards the atrium as in later phases.
    • Con la campagna condotta tra il 5 Settembre e il 14 Ottobre 2016, l’équipe dell’Università degli Studi di Milano, sotto la direzione del Prof. Giorgio Bejor e con il coordinamento tecnico della dott.ssa Ilaria Frontori, ha proseguito l’attività di ricerca dell’Area E, l’ampio settore compreso tra il teatro e la punta di Su Coloru. Insieme al proseguimento delle indagini condotte nelle scorse campagne si è dato avvio a nuove ricerche estensive nell’area del celebre “Atrio Tetrastilo” e nella vicina Casa del Signino, mai scavate sistematicamente dagli anni ’50 del ‘900. Come ogni anno la ricerca sul campo è stata affiancata dall’attività di magazzino rivolta al lavaggio, alla catalogazione e allo studio dei reperti mobili. Nella “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” (C.d.T) il proseguimento dello scavo dell’atrio è stata affiancata dall’apertura di nuovi saggi nei settori periferici occupati da nuclei abitativi esterni al perimetro, nell’ottica di una piena comprensione delle relazioni tra la _domus_ e lo spazio circostante. In particolare, nel corso dell’ultima campagna si sono indagati sette diversi ambienti: i vani A, F1, G, G1 e K, collocati nel cuore della casa, nelle prime tre settimane; i vani W e X, ubicati tra la _domus_ e le Terme a Mare, nelle ultime tre settimane. Lo scavo ha confermato alcune ipotesi ricostruttive precedentemente formulate: nel vano adiacente all’atrio A si è portata alla luce una cisterna in grossi blocchi di arenaria, disposti a profilo semicircolare, destinata alla conservazione delle acque provenienti dal vicino _impluvium_. Nell’area tra la _domus_ e le terme, la pulizia e il rilievo dell’esistente hanno permesso di attribuire le strutture emergenti a una serie di case allineate esattamente come la vicina Casa del Direttore Tronchetti, evidenziando la presenza di un quartiere più antico delle terme, parzialmente livellato dalla costruzione delle stesse. Nell’isolato centrale, oggetto d’indagine da parte dell’ateneo milanese dal 2002, lo scavo si è concentrato nel vano Ti delle Terme Centrali, dove si realizzato un sondaggio nell’area meridionale del vano, nel luogo in cui tradizionalmente si colloca l’ingresso delle terme. Lo scavo ha permesso di mettere in luce le fondazioni dei muri perimetrali dell’edificio, recuperando materiali utili alla datazione degli stessi, denotando la presenza di diversi ampliamenti del complesso, che ne hanno progressivamente stravolto la fisionomia: si sono infatti riconosciute almeno tre macrofasi edilizie, che andranno sviluppate col proseguimento delle indagini. Nella fascia delle Case a Mare, estesa dal teatro alla punta di Su Coloru, lo scavo del settore A ha sottolineato la pluristratificazione di questo vasto quartiere abitativo, nato nel periodo punico e abitato fino all’età tardoimperiale. Nell’ambiente Aa, indagato dal 2012, il raggiungimento dei livelli di calpestio di prima fase, coperti da almeno un metro di interro, ha permesso di datare le strutture più tarde a un periodo posteriore agli inizi del II d.C. Nella trincea di fondazione di uno dei muri più antichi, si è invece rinvenuto il fondo di un piatto sul quale vennero incise tre lettere in alfabeto fenicio: a una prima osservazione sembra che l’iscrizione riporti i caratteri “HRN”, riferibili a Horon, divinità fenicia già evocata in ambito sardo da una statuetta rinvenuta nel tempio di Antas.
    • This was the 15th season of excavations undertaken by Milan University at Nora. This year it was decided to continue work in a number of “key” areas of the ancient city, and to open trenches in new areas to add to the understanding of the site and add to areas open to the public within the archaeological park. In the Central Baths, the opening of small trial trenches in the new areas revealed stratigraphy that was useful for reconstructing the structure’s various phases of use. In particular, research took place in three rooms situated at the southern limit: To and Tq, occupied by two _praefurnia_ of the south _tepidarium_ and the _caldarium_, and a narrow service room between the first two. The excavations analysed part of the stratigraphy predating the construction of the baths, providing useful material for dating the earliest phases. A new section of the drain system was also excavated: a conduit covered by large stone blocks leading from the _frigidarium_ area, which connected to the already known drain leading towards the sea. In the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” (CdT) the excavation of the central courtyard revealed the presence of walls and floors pre-dating the Severan period, connected to a large “bath-tub shaped” cistern built of sandstone blocks. The cistern floor of terracotta based _opus_ _caementicium_ was exceptionally well preserved, as was the mortar revetment in which the ash substratum used to waterproof the structure could be glimpsed. The collapse of the north wall – that perhaps determined by the fact that the cistern went out of use just before the Severan reconstruction – made it possible to see how the structure was dug into the underlying bedrock. A previously undiscovered quarter is coming to light between the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” and the “Terme a Mare”, occupied by one or more abandoned residential nuclei and levelled during the extensive Severan transformation. The 2016 and 2017 campaigns identified the remains of a first building formed by at least six rooms (temporarily named the “Casa del Pozzo”, CdP, due to the vicinity of the so-called “Pozzo nuragico”) certainly inhabited between the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. This area is of fundamental importance for understanding the restructuring phases of the entire _insula_. In fact, the first studies have shown how some of the spaces in the CdP were used as a dump for building rubble from the nearby “Terme a Mare”, such as a fragment of white plaster bearing the graffiti of three numbers (III, VIII, VIIII) and the base of a small column of giallo antico, perhaps reworked as a floor element. The last intervention too place in the so-called “Case del Signino” (CdS), excavated by G. Pesce and again in 2016 by Milan University. This made it possible to reconstruct the spaces of a _domus_ built around a large central courtyard, which can be associated with several commercial spaces opening onto the square in front. While excavations took place within the rooms of the _domus_, the walls and floors of the entire complex were recorded.
    • Excavations took place in Area E between the theatre, the western _domus_ and the point of Su Coloru. The aim was to investigate the Central Baths (rooms Tt, Tr, Tq), the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” (rooms F2, H), the “Casa del Pozzo”, the southern part of the “Casa dell’Atrio Tetrastilo” and the “Case al Mare”. In the Central Baths, work continued on the service areas of the complex, concentrating on the four _praefurnia_: in 2017, the furnace of the south _tepidarium_ (room To) was excavated, while this season’s research looked at the _calidarium_ structures (rooms Tq, Tr) and the north _tepidarium_ (room Tt). The data from the stratigraphic deposits in To, Tr and Tt, basically uniform, showed the series of rebuilds involving the furnace ducts, to be associated with what has already been reconstructed for other sectors of the baths, that clearly underwent structural transformations. This tendency was also confirmed in room Tq by the succession of drain structures seemed to block, overly and substitute each other, indicating a sequence of distinct phases of use. Only an understanding of these numerous interventions will make it possible to reconstruct and date the reconstruction dynamics of the bath complex and the entire quarter. The excavations in the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti” (CdT) concentrated on a large room that marked the southern edge of the house (room H), and on the _fauces_ linking the atrium to the coastal strip (room F2). In both sectors walls, floors and water supply structures emerged dating to at least three different periods, showing that the area was occupied by high-status housing from the early empire until the late 3rd century A.D. Nearby, the excavations in the “Casa del Pozzo” revealed at least six rooms with floors, levelled by the Severan restructuring and used by the nearby Sea Baths as a dump for building materials. Most of the research was dedicated to removing the abandonment fill from the so-called “Pozzo Nuragico”, exposing the structure and clarifying its function: a flight of steps built of stone blocks led down into a circular well cut into the bedrock. Water is still present in the bottom of the well, showing that the water table is still active. The excavations in the “Casa dell’Atrio Tetrastilo” were concentrated in the south corridor and adjacent apsidal room (W1 and W2), characterised by later occupation phases than the known nucleus with mosaic floors. The rooms were studied from the point of view of plan and stratigraphy, arriving at a more intelligible picture and raising new questions – not least the relationship with the luxurious adjacent _domus_ - that can only be answered by continuing the excavations. The last area excavated was situated in the residential quarter facing the south cove, the “Case al Mare”. An interesting _sondage_ in room Ad revealed at least four overlying floor surfaces in addition to floors cut by postholes that seem to date to a very early occupation phase, probably late Punic.
    • During this campaign, the team from Milan University continued the excavation, study and work to enhance a large sector of Area E, situated between the theatre and Su Coloru point. Excavation took place in the Central Baths, the House of Director Tronchetti, the House of the Well and the central part of the House of the Tetrastyle Atrium. In the House of Director Tronchetti (CDT), where work began in 2013, the recent excavations concentrated on room H, a long space that marks the southern edge of the house, and on room M, the northernmost of the so-called “workshops” situated south of the eastern _fauces_. Walls and floors emerged in both sectors that date to at least three distinct phases, attesting the presence of the area of high quality residences from the early imperial period until the 3rd century A.D. In the House of the Well (CdP), research in room D revealed a structure recognised as a limekiln, formed by a _praefurnium_ of large andesite stones (chosen for this stone’s resistance to high temperatures), sealed by a solid block of lime. A layer of reddened baked clay covered the chamber walls and the floor was constituted by a baked clay surface covered by a thick layer of ash, attesting the combustion processes that occurred within the structure. There is a very close parallel in an analogous structure found on the Tanit hill. Slightly to the west, the excavation was completed of the structure traditionally known as the “Pozzo Nuragico”, the famous well situated between room C of the _domus_ and the Sea Baths, partially investigated in 2018. On that occasion, the work was halted during the excavation of the late fills due to rising ground water. This season, the fills were removed thanks to the use of a pump and the help of the maintenance personnel of the Nora Archaeological Park. The removal of the stratified fill led to the complete exposure of the structure, revealing the access staircase and the floor cut directly in the bedrock, characterised by a central hollow for settling. Excavation in the Central Baths took place in a large area south-west of the _calidarium_ (SdT), the large space behind the northern _praefurnia_ of the _tepidarium_ and _calidarium_ (Tt and Tr) and room Ts, a space linking the _castellum_ _aquae_ and the so-called “Nymphaeum”, with the aim of defining the chronology of the occupation phases of the entire complex.
    • During this campaign carried out by Milan University, work continued on the excavation, study and enhancement of a large portion of Area E, the urban sector situated between the theatre and the Su Coluru headland. In particular, excavations took place in the Central Baths and the Casa del Direttore Tronchetti (fig. 1). In the central Baths, known throughout the Mediterranean for its wonderful mosaics, excavation of the service rooms continued, in particular, in the area SW of the _calidarium_ (SdT, fig.2) and in the large space behind the northern _praefurnia_ (Tt- Tr, fig. 3). New levels relating to the use of the furnaces were uncovered, providing new data for the chronology of the complex’s construction phases. In the area of the “Casa del Direttore Tronchetti”, where work began in 2013, recent excavations followed two distinct lines of research: one concentrated on room O, in order to continue the diachronic analysis of the rooms arranged around the central atrium, and the other developed the open area excavation as far as room P, a large open space situated on the northern edge of the _domus_, in order to check the relationship with the surrounding quarter (fig. 4). In synthesizing the data, it is useful to recall that the investigations undertaken in the large atrium A and adjacent rooms B, C, D and H have in recent years led to the identification of at least four occupation phases. The best-preserved structures belong to a large _domus_ of the Severan period and subsequent phases of restructuring. However, it is clear that they overlay walls, floors and hydraulic structures relating to houses dating from the Augustan period onwards. In the NW corner of the excavation area, in particular in the vicinity of the so-called “pozzo nuragico”, several rooms belonging to a wealthy dwelling of early imperial date, the “House of the Well”, were demolished during the Severan restructuring, probably in a phase when there was a general reorganisation of the quarter, which culminated in the construction of the nearby Terme a Mare.


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