• Valea Crişului
  • Romania
  • Covasna County
  • Comuna Valea Crişului


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    • In 2004 we conducted the second excavation campaign at Kálnoki Castle in Valea Crişului (Criş Valley), Covasna county. The excavation plan aimed at clearing out some aspects relating to the evolution of the building. We excavated occupation levels from the 13th, 14th-16th and 17th centuries. In the early mediaeval level (from the 13th century) close to the east wing of the castle we found an open fireplace and a burned level, from which we recovered knives and arrow tips. At the upper part of this level we uncovered a coin from the early 14th century. The 14th-16th are represented only by scarce coarsewares sherds, and, rarely, some terra-cotta plates. Some of the walled structures uncovered in the north-west part of the present castle might date to the 16th century. On the west side of the north wing we identified a room system that might have belonged to a constructive stage that preceded the present castle. We excavated elements of the defensive system from the 17th century: the precinct wall, the defense trench; in the area of the present entranceway we uncovered a hexagon shaped construction, that preceded the structure of the entranceway, very likely a tower. Its demolition was closely followed by the construction of the present structure of the entranceway. The archaeological materials recovered from the excavation, mainly consisting of stove plate fragments dating to the 17th century. It is obvious that several stoves from the castle were dismantled at the same time, and their remains were used for evening the ground or filling some pits found in their close vicinity. The terra-cotta plates belong to the types specific of the period. The coarsewares sherds are fewer. Generally, we remark that the vessels are of good quality, red fired, with outer decoration painted in red and white. The enamels occur rather rarely. The range of the shapes is rather small: pots, frying pans, plates and bowls.


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