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FOLD&R Italy Series

Editors: Helga Di Giuseppe, Elizabeth Fentress
Scientific Committee: Gilda Bartoloni, Enrico Benelli, Alessandra Capodiferro, Alberto Cazella, Alfredo Coppa, Michael Crawford, Stefano De Caro, Alessandro Guidi, Paolo Liverani, Alessandra Molinari, Massimo Osanna, Emanuele Papi, Lucia Saguì, Catherine Virlouvet, Giuliano Volpe, Andrew Wallace-Hadrill

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Index for 2022

  • 540 - Alessia Contino - Lucilla D’Alessandro - Alessandro D’Alessio - Horacio Gonzάlez Cesteros - Simona Pannuzi . 2022. La Longarina 2 (Ostia) Revisione dei dati provenienti dai contenitori da trasporto. Rapporto Preliminare . The archaeological site of La Longarina in Ostia has been partially excavated in two different field campaigns. Excavations in Longarina 1 were carried out in 1975 and in Longarina 2 in 2005. The two work areas were situated very close to each other, in the vast lagoon of Ostia connected with the sea on one side and elsewhere with the salt flats. Research has revealed the existence of a reclamation system of the marshland by the drainage of groundwater and by reinforcing the lagoon banks with soils mixed with various clayey materials. With this aim, during the late 1st century BCE and first moments of the 1st CE, large quantities of earth mixed with different materials, mainly pottery, were interleaved with deposits of complete or almost complete amphorae. With this contribution we aim to report a first preliminary study about the Longarina 2 depot, based on a first small campaign developed in November 2021. This depot is formed by 47 amphorae (fig. 3, tab. 1). From a chronological point of view there is a striking homogeneity with all the amphora types dated in the central decades of the 1st century BCE; from a geographical perspective, most amphorae came from the Italian regions, especially from the central and north Adriatic (34) with a smaller quantity of those produced in different Tirrenian areas (4). However, extra-Italian regions such as the Iberian Peninsula (7) and North Africa (2) are present as well. This preliminary publication is the first step in a larger study about the whole context included in a broad scientific collaboration between the Archaeological Park of Ostia Antica, the Austrian Archaeological Institute (ÖAI), the Complutense University in Madrid (UCM), the Segretariato Regionale for Lazio, and the Villa Adriana and Villa d’ Este Institute. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 539 - Paolo Storchi - Andrea Colagrande. 2022. Il ritrovamento di tre pedine da gioco al Castellazzo di Taneto (RE) e alcune considerazioni sul suo ruolo strategico. Starting from 2017, the Tannetum international archaeological project began the investigations of a fort known in local topon-ymy as "Castellazzo" (Taneto di Gattatico, RE). The only previous excavations, which took place in the 50s and 60s of the twentieth century, had to stop almost immediately, due to the upwelling of the groundwater. This led to various hypothetical dating and interpretations of the structure. Our research has instead shown that it is a medieval fortress, built in the mid-ninth century and, based on the findings presented here, it seems to live at least until the eleventh century. Excavations have, so far, focused on a tower, this led to the discovery of 8 Islamic chess pieces probably produced in Iran, published in 2019; however, in continuing the research, 4 other pawns were found, perhaps referable to the game of “tables”, one of the most popular games in the Middle Ages. New archaeological data made it possible to propose some new considerations about the historical context in which the castle was built and destroyed. Keyword: Castle; Tric-trac; Pawns; Chess; Medieval board games PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 538 - Claudia Tozzi. 2022. Una necropoli di epoca imperiale al km 13 della via Aurelia a Roma (loc. Massa Gallesina): considerazioni preliminari . This contribution presents the results of the excavation in via la Monachina, located on the western outskirts of Rome, in the locality of Massa Gallesina (at the thirteenth kilometer of the modern Via Aurelia). The excavation led to the discovery of a vast necropolis of the imperial age (II-III century AD). 337 burials were recovered consisting mostly of single burials in an earth pit. Furthermore, the excavation, carried out in recent years, combining modern investigative approaches and carried out with the in situ support of anthropological analysis, offers on the one hand the possibility of a study based on a reliable numerical sample, and on the other a complete reading on the treatment of the deceased, the use of collective cemetery spaces and, finally, the historical-social nature of the space and its use. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 537 - Paolo Brocato - Luciano Altomare - Chiara Capparelli - Filomena Costanzo - Aurelio Marino - Margherita Perri . 2022. Scavi nell’abitato del Timpone della Motta di Francavilla Marittima (CS): risultati preliminari della campagna 2021 . This paper is a preliminary report of the results of the excavation of the Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici of the Università del-la Calabria in the settlement of Timpone della Motta in Francavilla Marittima (CS). During the fourth year of excavation, re-search was conducted on plateau II. In particular, numerous evidences pertinent to huts were found, to be referred to the phase in which the housing structures were made of wood. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 536 - Halinka Di Lorenzo - Paola Orlando - Ilaria Matarese. 2022. Rinvenimento di un battuto stradale di fine IV-III secolo a.C. nel comune di San Marco Evangelista (CE) – Campania/Italia. During the archaeological excavations carried out for the construction of two industrial plants in the municipality of San Marco Evangelista (CE), a pre-centurial rural roadbed in an excellent state of preservation was found. This roadbed is chronologically framed, through the analysis of archaeological materials, to the late IV-mid III century BC. The stratigraphic deepening of some parts of the roadbed has permitted the identification of a series of levels of repair and resurfacings executed in the arc of a century. The first level of the oldest roadbed was embedded in a canal and seemed to follow a slightly different orienta-tion than the most recent. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 535 - Marcello Mogetta – Ilaria Battiloro – Ivan Varriale – Daniel P. Diffendale – Giordano Iacomelli – Mattia D’Acri – Chiara Corbino – Chiara Comegna – Giacomo Pardini . 2022. Archaeological Research at the Sanctuary of Venus in Pompeii: Interim Report of the 2018-2019 Seasons of the Venus Pompeiana Project . As part of the new cycle of archaeological research promoted by the Archaeological Park of Pompeii in the Sanctuary and Temple of Venus (VIII.1.3), a team from Mount Allison University and the University of Missouri undertook a second and third season of fieldwork in the summers of 2018 and 2019. This report presents the stratigraphic data collected from trenches ex-cavated within the cella, in the open court E of the temple, and in the E wing of the triporticus that surrounded it. The results have allowed us to further define the spatial organization of the area prior to the construction of the monumental sanctuary, first uncovered in 2017, revealing more remains of Samnite-era buildings that occupied elongated city blocks which were for-mally developed during the 2nd century BCE and repurposed in the early 1st century BCE, possibly for commercial functions. Based on finds from the obliteration sequence of these features and the surviving architectural decoration, the erection of the temple and triporticus can be securely dated to the late 1st century BCE, thus undermining previous reconstructions that vari-ously assigned the first building phase to the Late Samnite, Sullan or Caesarian periods. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 534 - Elena Arbolino - Giuliano Giovannetti. 2022. I cantieri di spoliazione basso medievali del Templum Pacis: stratigrafia e contesti ceramici degli scavi recenti . The stratigraphy and pottery from two spoliation contexts located at the Templum Pacis (Rome) are described here. The stratigraphic data reported in the first part of this manuscript deals with two main activities recognized within the investi-gated area and identified as two different spoliation trenches. The first one, -910, removed the foundations of the western wall located between the worship hall and the Forma Urbis hall. The second one, -1203, later than the first, was excavated in order to remove the brick curtain of the surviving septum wall, located to the west of the wall destroyed by the previous ditch. Finally, the data collected during the last fieldwork campaigns, between 2012 and 2015, increase our know-ledges of the westernmost area of the temple, partially reconstructed during the 2000’ and 2010’ excavations. The second part of the manuscript deals with the study of the pottery collected from the fills of the spoliation cuts. The results suggest that the -910 dates between the end of twelfth and the beginning of thirteenth century whilst the -1203 dates between the thirteenth and the fourteenth century. Further, the material analyzed, including the residuals, enabled us to reconstruct dif-ferent phases of occupation and abandonment of the Templum Pacis area between the Imperial period and the sixteenth century. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 533 - Edoardo Vanni - Laura Pagliantini. 2022. Ceci n’est pas une Villa. La ripresa delle indagini archeologiche al sito romano delle Grotte (Portoferraio, Isola d’Elba) . The monumental Roman building known as the Roman Villa delle Grotte, in the bay of Portoferraio, on the Island of Elba, has been the subject of numerous researches since 1700. Initially interpreted as one of the luxurious villae maritimae that dotted the islands of the Tuscan archipelago, built by noble exponents of the aristocratic classes of Rome for rest and recreation, has been the subject of a profound re-examination for some years. Some elements seem to confirm the interpretation of the building as a large palace residence perhaps belonging to the powerful Valerii family, who had properties and interests on the island and on the coast in front. Others, in particular the large number of rooms characterized by waterproofing coatings and water pipes, suggest that it was, before a villa, a monumental preparation in which water was the central element: a large castellum aquarum with a sanctuary in the center? A large hortus comparable to those that were set up in the city in those same decades? The building was built at the end of the 1st century BC. and used until the end of the 1st century AD. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 532 - John J. Dobbins and James G. Cooper. 2022. The Roman Foot in the Capitolium at Pompeii: a Contribution by the Pompeii Forum Project . The present metrological study was conducted in the context of the ongoing research of the Pompeii Forum Project that was founded in 1995 to study the dynamic evolution of the forum and the zones immediately adjacent to it. This tightly focused ar-ticle on the Roman foot in the Capitolium is a contribution to that effort in anticipation of a full treatment of the building in our final book publication. The metrology of the temple constitutes an important class of evidence in its own right and must be considered when dis-cussing the temple as a whole and its architectural history. The utility of such a study is that metric dimensions can be con-verted easily to Oscan or Roman feet. The first goal of the article is to provide raw data that allow us, and other researchers, to address the question of whether the temple was designed in Oscan or Roman feet. This is important as the pre-Roman Samnites employed the Oscan foot while the Romans employed the Roman. Our data thus allow us to address the related question of whether the temple was Samnite or a product of Roman control of the city after 89 BCE. The second goal is to assess the evidence that reveals the ubiquitous use of the Roman foot that, in turn, argues for a post-89 BCE Roman date for the temple. In the process of our documentation, we discovered that the columns in the pronaos of the temple appear to be no longer in their ancient locations, and that a regularized placement reveals that the Capitolium conforms to the Vitruvian pycnostyle type of Roman temple (Tables 13-15). While that observation requires a few comments on temple design, the latter is not the intent of this study. A future publication will treat the temple’s design, phasing, and chronology in detail, as indicated above . The twofold importance of the present article lies in the fact that it is the only study to date that provides full documentation of the metric dimensions within the temple and that it contributes to the Samnite vs. Roman debate in substantial ways. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 531 - L. Guzzardi - M. Pisani - F. Fasoli - A. Simonelli - C. Tozzi - M. Vitaliti - G. A. Della Sala - G. Pacconi - E. Petullà - F. Redi - C. Sugamele - G. Luglio . 2022. Leontinoi Ricerche in corso su Colle San Mauro . In 2021, the University of Rome “Tor Vergata” with the Parco Archeologico di Leontinoi, carried out a short campaign in the archaeological site of Leontinoi (Sicily), whose preliminary results are illustrated in the present paper. The research focused on two distinct sectors of Colle San Mauro, respectively in the southern and the northern part of the hill, the latter never in-vestigated before. The structures brought to light belong to different periods, from the Archaic period to the Middle Ages, in-cluding the remains of a greek temple. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 530 - Massimo De Benetti. 2022. Scoperta e valorizzazione della chiesa romanica “del cavaliere” nel Parco Regionale della Maremma (Toscana – Italia) . The study published in 2015 of an important medieval coin hoard found in the territory of the Maremma Regional Park (Tuscany – Italy) gave impulse to an archaeological survey carried out in the years 2016-2019 as part of a PhD Project. The research work led to the discovery of a previously unknown medieval settlement situated in a narrow valley south of the castle of Collecchium (Magliano in Toscana – GR). The complex consisted of a church built in Romanesque style and other annexed buildings, now completely collapsed and still showing all around unusually well preserved traces of a medieval landscape with fields suitable for cultivation, a spring, paths and even a quarry. The materials recovered during the survey shows that the church was externally enriched with architectural decorations and figurative bas-reliefs, including that of a horseman. The settlement was in use between the late 11th and 13th centuries, a period in which the interests of the San Salvatore al Monte Amiata Abbey and those of the powerful Aldobrandeschi family intertwined in this area, until the intervention of Siena with the purchase of the nearby port of Talamone in 1303. Surface survey and non-invasive methods have allowed us to collect useful archaeological data and to avoid destructive intervention such as excavating in a protected natural area. The site is now included in two itineraries and is fully accessible to visitors of the regional Park. Parole chiave: Toscana, Medioevo, Aldobrandeschi, San Salvatore al Monte Amiata, Talamone PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 529 - Antonino Meo. 2022. Il complesso “ex Salesiani” a Pisa (scavi 2011-2012). The excavation of the “ex-Salesiani” complex, located in Pisa, documented a long settlement sequence, discontinuously covering a chronological span between the 2nd century BC and the pre-modern period. Between the 2nd century BC-2nd century AD, the area does not seem to be occupied by buildings. At least from the 10th-11th century, a church was built with a few buildings around it. During the 12th century, a metal workshop was set up and, between the end of the 12th-13th century, after the rebuilding of the church in its present form, a textile workshop started its work. Be-tween the end of the 16th and 17th century, new transformations took place: the space along the main road was completely filled and, on the inside, horticultural/garden areas were created. In the 18th century, the area hosted a monastery. The new use involved the extension of the church and the definition of some new cemetery areas below the apse and on the sides of the church. Between the 20th and 21st century, the Salesians and, subseauently, the CNR, made new modifications to the complex. Keywords: Pisa; Roman archaeology; Medieval archaeology; Post Medieval archaeology; archaeology of production; ur-ban archaeology. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 528 - Fabio Fabiani – Stefano Genovesi – Salvatore Basile – Alberto Caroti – Adriano Ribolini – Giovanni Sarti – Germana Sorrentino . 2022. all’Area Scheibler. Since the 20th century ‘80s the Area Scheibler, located in the Western outskirts of Pisa, has been the place of findings and rescue excavations. Such discoveries testify the long-lasting history of this sector of the ancient suburb from the Iron Age to the Early Middle Age, with a consistent Roman phase. Core reading performed and geoelectrical investigation outlined that the area was crossed by a large fluvial channel, the disappeared Auser river. Investigated areas are located to the East (Area 4) and the West (Area 5) of the water course, of- fering a wide picture of the ancient landscape. From our investigation a complex stratigraphic sequence emerged: it was possible to recognise a fluvial landscape consist- ing of river bank protection structures, piers, navalia, and the probable remains of a via helciaria. Such evidence are signifi- cantly related to the close site of the Roman shipwrecks of Pisa San Rossore, dating from the second century BC. to the 5th century AD. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 527 - F. Boschi - V. Baldoni - M. Benfatti - A. Gamberini - M. Natalucci - I. Venanzoni - E. Zampieri. 2022. La necropoli di Contrada Nevola a Corinaldo (Ancona): nuove acquisizioni dalle ricerche 2019-2021 . The paper presents the results of the ongoing research in the Picenian and Roman necropolis of Contrada Nevola in Corinaldo, conducted by the University of Bologna in collaboration with SABAP AN and PU. The excavation campaigns, carried out in continuity from 2019 to 2021, provide new data both on the necropolis of the Orien-talizing Age (7th century BC), enriched with a new funerary circle with high-ranking grave goods, and on the burial ground of the middle imperial Roman Age, which has become more defined in terms of extension, chronology and tomb types. The new acquisitions always derive from the integrated investigations within the framework of the ArcheoNevola project and from a procedure of preventative archaeological assessment, on the background of a synergic collaboration between all the institutions involved. The picture that seems to emerge from the diachronic analysis of the context is that of an area that has maintained a funer-ary use for a long time, perhaps even with an important hiatus between the main phases of occupation, but certainly recog-nised and prolonged. The topographical position and the characteristics of the funerary landscape must have favoured the survival of the site, possibly also charged with ideological meanings and memory. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 526 - Michelle Hobart - Alessandro Carabia. 2022. The Second Archaeological season at Castellaraccio di Monteverdi 2019 (Civitella Paganico - GR) . This paper illustrates the results of the second archaeological season that took place at the medieval site of Castellaraccio di Monteverdi, in the territory of Civitella Paganico (Grosseto, Italy). The excavation revealed the phases of abandonment in one of the rooms of the main keep of the settlement, completing and confirming the results of the 2018 trench. A second new area was opened on the North side of the fortification to define the role and the function of other sections of the castle. The material recovered confirms that the site was abandoned during the second half of the known 13th century, as stated in the written sources. At this stage one other earlier phase of occupation predates the visible standing structure. Further, new details were added to the general plan based on emerging remains. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 525 - Caterina Pisu - Lorenzo Gennaro Carletti. 2022. Analisi preliminare ed interpretazione crono-funzionale delle strutture rupestri di epoca medievale del Monte Bisenzio (Capodimonte, VT) . The surveys carried out between 2019 and 2020 on Monte Bisenzio (Capodimonte, VT), as part of the research carried out by the Museum of Navigation in the Inland Waters of Capodimonte, made it possible to identify and survey a series of lithic structures, probably to be related with the castrum which, from the early Middle Ages to the 14th century, occupied the sum-mit of Monte Bisenzio. The lithic structures consist of artificial caves of various sizes and some pressing basins for grape crushing, which together with the dovecote, were probably related to the productive activities of the castrum, in particular breeding, cultivation of vines and other agricultural activities that required storage environments. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 524 - Alice Capobianco - Silvia Pallecchi - Elena Santoro. 2022. Le indagini archeologiche in Località Rovere a San Bartolomeo al Mare (IM) Campagne 2018-2019 . This paper refers to the preliminary results of the archaeological excavation carried out by the University of Genoa in 2018 and 2019 in San Bartolomeo al Mare, in the area hypothetically identified as the Mansio of Lucus Bormani. The activities fo-cused on the square-court (area 1) and on a small sample located south-east of Building B (area 2). The intervention made it possible to detect remains of structures and deposits attributable to a chronological period between the end of the I century and the beginning of the III century AD. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 523 - Gianluca Mastrocinque, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro. 2022. Un nuovo palinsesto nell’insula a sud del foro di Egnazia: da abitazione indigena a domus del municipio e ad edificio religioso nella città del vescovo . The interdisciplinary project ‘Egnazia: from the excavation to the valorisation’, by the Department of Research and Humanistic Innovation of the University of Bari ‘Aldo Moro’, pay attention to the insula in the South area of the Egnazia forum, where first the public baths and then the near peristyle domus were identified and studied. The survey has been extended to an adjacent area of the same insula since 2015, where an articulated palimpsest was identified: it is now introduced organically for the first time. This area was characterized by the indigenous inhabitation between 6th and 3rd c. B.C., the first investigated by stratigraphic excavation in Egnazia, composed by a large house and its funerary area. A rich atrium domus was building here on the first half of 2nd c. B.C., which lives up to the end of 4th A.D., when this area was acquired by the ecclesiastic authority for building a new religious structure. The sequence allows to read the urban continuity and transformation with new elements both for occupation manner and ‘cultural landscape’, in particular for the inhabit ways, the cults, the relationship between the alive people, deaths and divinity spaces. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 522 - Alessio De Cristofaro - Marzia Di Mento - Giordana Amicucci. 2022. Sulla via Cornelia (IV) Un nuovo castellum aquae (?) e strutture idrauliche tra le antiche vie Aurelia e Corne-lia (località via di Torre Rossa) . The paper presents the results of a rescue excavation in Rome, via di Torre Rossa. During the Roman period, this was an ar-ea of the suburb next to the ancient city crossed by via Aurelia and the via Cornelia. The excavation led to the discovery of a large hydraulic structure, interpreted as castellum aquae, probably state-owned and connected to one of the two public aque-ducts found here: the aqua Alsietina and the aqua Traiana. The research also made it possible to re-read some old findings from the 1960s, from the same the area: it is another probable castellum, a cistern and a conduit probably relating to the aq-ueduct of Trajan.. Overall, the structures testify to the strategic importance of this area for the distribution of water to the vil-las and fundi of this part of the western Suburbium. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 521 - Adam Lindhagen. 2022. The Liceo Project: Field work at proprietà Lolli and Colleoni, Villa Adriana, 2011-2012 . This article is a preliminary publication of the results of the excavations and research at proprietà Lolli and Colleoni 2011-2012, Vil-la Adriana, known as the Liceo area and often considered as a part of Hadrian’s Villa. The Liceo Project, which is the framework of this fieldwork, aims to document the archaeological remains and the topography of the area through digital documentation, archae-ological excavation and prospection and understand its relation to the Imperial villa. The project has two core objects of study, the so-called Villa of the Lolli Paolini with its ambulatorium and a recently excavated structure (Building A) that can be interpreted as a smaller villa with baths. The so-called Villa of the Lolli Paolini has an enigmatic ambulatorium which originally gave the name to the area, Liceo. Building A was discovered in 2004, and the excavations carried out by the project have shown that the excavated structure had a basin. Water supply was abundant here: a cistern may have been connected with a large aqueduct of probable Hadrianic date which passes nearby. In addition, the end of a late Republican aqueduct, hewn out of the tufa rock, was discovered beneath Building A. The building had at least four different building phases: the first can be dated to the early Augustan period and the last to the Hadrianic period. In addition, the basin seems to have been reused in late Antiquity as a lime kiln. The spina-wall of the ambulatorium of the so-called Villa Lolli Paolini was cleaned of vegetation, and it became apparent that a double water channel was attached to the south side of it, continuing all the way to its double exedra in the west. The fact that the Hadrianic aqueduct mentioned above, which presumably lead water into Hadrian’s Villa, seems to begin behind the western exedra of the ambulatori-um, raises interesting questions regarding where this water came from. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet
  • 520 - Marzia Di Mento - Filippo Salamone. 2022. Un edificio a carattere utilitario ai margini degli Horti Sallustiani . Preliminary investigations carried out inside the Ambasciatori Palace Hotel (Via V. Veneto, Rome) brought to light several rooms delimited by opus reticulatum and opus testaceum walls, with floors in opus spicatum, cocciopesto and black and white mosaics. By combining these archaeological remains with those discovered in the area from the end of the 19th century onwards, it’s possible to reconstruct the layout of a building, which can be interpreted as a horreum of the Horti Sallustiani, with construction phases dating from the first half of the 1st century AD. PDFpermalinkRecord Sheet